Radiophysical methods for diagnostics of natural environments

The main trend in the development of modern methods for a study of natural environments is the expansion of the range of remote sensing methods and the increase in their efficiency compared with that of contact measuring facilities. These requirements are fully satisfied by the radiophysical methods of diagnostics based on the use of wave (penetrating into the medium) signals and the corresponding techniques and algorithms of their processing. Of particular interest and importance are the problems of diagnostics and monitoring of the state of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and underlying earth covers under the conditions of strong human and natural impacts. The potential advantages of remote radiophysical methods are the possibility of large-scale diagnostics and monitoring in large water areas (for the sea surface) or in a large range of heights (for the atmosphere), the principal possibility of a complex approach using probing signals of various bands and various carriers of onboard facilities (ship, aircraft, and satellite). Studies and developments in this topical trend were performed from the first years of the IAP RAS foundation and are now based on the significant reserve of the previous activities.